TRADES: Functions and terms
PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF THE TRADES
trades operate in road building and heavy construction:
classified as operating engineers include: surveyors, heavy duty mechanics who
repair and service equipment, electrical mechanics, servicepersons who fuel,
oil, lube and add fluids and change filters on equipment, spotters, tire
mechanics, tire servicepersons, repair welders and concrete pump operators.
Also included are apprentices to any of classifications listed above. Teamsters
and labourers are rarely found on roadbuilding or heavy construction crews. In
the roadbuilding and heavy construction sector, contractors hire employees who
know how to operate a variety of equipment. As a result, most projects just
employ operating engineers and not teamsters. This is because many operating
engineers have the credentials to do teamster as well as operating engineer
work. If the project is large enough, the contractor will hire a full-time
teamster to drive the buses or fuel trucks.
Teamsters, if employed in
this sector, are limited to driving licensed machinery. Licensed machinery is
machinery allowed on public highways. This includes buses and fuel trucks.
Teamsters service the operating engineer’s equipment on roadbuilding and heavy
construction sites. Teamsters drive buses from a work camp to the work site and
back to camp. They also drive fuel trucks and fuel the heavy equipment at the
Labourers, if employed in
heavy construction, assist surveyors, prepare explosives and use power saws for
cutting and clearing trees. When building roads they direct traffic, assist
surveyors, prepare and set the forms for curbs, gutters and concrete work. A
typical example of a labourer is a person assisting oiling the machinery or
providing directions for the operators. During a slow period on the job site
these employees may be trained on packing machines or other types of equipment.
During a certification application the officer should use the prime function test
when determining in which unit the employees belong. See: [
 Alta L.R.B.R. 10].
CLASSIFICATIONS AND EQUIPMENT TYPE
following list contains the employee classification encountered in the
roadbuilding and heavy construction sector. The abbreviations used are:
Engineer = (O/E);
• Laborer = (Lab); and
• Apprentices: Mechanic, Welder,
Bodyperson, Electrical Mechanics, Machinists, and Crane Operators. Person
employed in accordance with provincial governmental regulations and indentured
under applicable apprenticeship and tradesperson’s qualification legislation.
Plant Operator: Assists
plant operators in operation of plants. O/E.
Grinder: Sharpens bits by
• Bodyperson: Certified or qualified to
repair body of all equipment and vehicles. O/E
Driver: Operates a bus.
possessing a recognized trade ticket.
Pump Operator: Operates and
maintains mobile or truck-mounted concrete pump. O/E.
Operator: On cranes of 15
tons capacity and over, the operator must have a hoisting ticket. O/E.
or qualified to repair electrical components of equipment. O/E.
or skip hoist. O/E.
• Finish Rakerperson:Rakes seams to
make final grade on road construction. Lab.
• Flagperson: Directs and controls traffic
on a jobsite. Lab.
• Former:L ays forms for curbs,
sidewalks and gutters on roadways. Lab.
• Greaser: Greases rack to service
• Helpers: Mechanic, welder,
bodyperson, electrical mechanics and machinists. Person employer to assist
tradeperson but is not an indentured apprentice. Lab.
for probationary period. O/E, Team.
Boy Operator:Operates Low
Boy truck and can load and unload equipment. O/E.
• Machinists:Certified or qualified to
manufacture precision machine parts for equipment using lathes and drill
presses, etc. O/E.
• Mechanic:Certified or qualified
tradesperson employer to repair all equipment and vehicles. O/E.
• Oiler:Oils, greases, cleans and
assists operator. O/E.
• Operator (Principal): Qualified
person employed to operate heavy and light equipment, trucks, farm tractors,
all-terrain vehicles, buses, and stationary equipment such as compressors,
pumps, heaters, mixers and generators. O/E, Team.
• Partsperson:Purchases, receives and does
inventory control of all parts for equipment. O/E.
• Piledriver:In charge of hammers and
leads and assists piledriver operator and ensures piles are straight. O/E.
asphalt (batch), concrete, gravel, crushing, screening and washing or
soil-cement plant. O/E.
Assists plant operator and
assistant plant operator in the operation of plant. Lab.
Operates and maintains pumps
and attachments to pump all fluids and materials.
Operates screed machine that
controls the width and depth of asphalt. O/E.
or Employee: Fuel
and services equipment and operate the unit provided for that purpose.
Assists service technician
or employee. Lab.
Assists operator (principal)
in the spotting, placing, maintenance or cleaning of equipment. Lab.
Qualified tradesperson for
operation and maintenance of boilers. O/E.
person employed in all aspects of surveying. O/E.
Qualified person employed to
repair, balance and align tires. O/E.
Certified or qualified
tradesperson employed to weld on equipment or fabrication. O/E.
The following is the type of equipment used in this
used to strip or plane asphalt from existing road during road repairs. O/E.
or Concrete Paver: Also
known as lay-down machine, used to lay down concrete or asphalt. O/E.
such as dozer, hoes and cranes which have special attachments for backfilling
trenches or excavations. O/E.
Spreader/Jersey Spreader: Machine used to spread soil cement or lime on a road surface.
Used in operation of hardening base portion of road or parking lot. O/E.
TimesNewRoman'>Auger-type machine used to bore under roads and other surface
Machine (Vertical): Auger-type
machine used for drilling small and large diameter holes for piling for
building foundations and bridges, etc. Stabilizes ground. O/E.
D-2 to D-10: Commonly
known as bulldozer. Prime function to move materials such as dirt, sand,
gravel, etc. O/E.
• Clam/Dragline:Conventional crane with clam
bucket used to move material from hard to reach locations. O/E.
• Compressors:Operation and maintenance of
all types and capacities of compressors and operation of pneumatic attachments.
mobile pump used to pump and place concrete. Team., O/E.
• Cranes:All types and sizes of
rubber-tired and tracked conventional and hydraulic cranes used to lift, move
and lower equipment and materials.O/E.
that can drill on an angle, used to drill under rivers, etc. O/E.
• Ditch-Witch:Small trencher used to dig
trench for smaller cables. O/E.
Hoist:Hoist with double
drums used to hoisting and lowering of materials. Both single- and double-drum
hoists are usually stationary and air- or motor-driven. O/E.
• Excavators:All sizes of rubber tire and
track shovels (old cable) and backhoes (new, hydraulic) used to excavate and
move various materials (sand, dirt, etc.). O/E.
Tractors:Two- or four-wheel
rubber-tired farm tractors, all types and sizes with attachments such as
buckets, forks, ploughs, used for towing any equipment such as rone plough,
trailers, discs and compaction equipment. O/E.
• Feller Buncher:Also known as tree
farmer, used to cut, delimb and pile timber. O/E.
• Forklift:Machine with forks used to
raise, lower and transport materials. Used to load and unload trucks. O/E.
Ender:All size of track
(crawler) or rubber-tired machine used to load trucks, transport materials and
• Generators:Operation and maintenance of
all types and capacities of generators and generator-light-plant combinations.
• Gradall:Rubber-tired or tracked
machine used to dig, grade and slope trenches, etc. O/E.
and Chip Spreader:Machine
used to spread gravel chips on road surface. O/E.
Axes:Machine used to cut
bush and shrub along right of ways. O/E.
earth mover used to move dirt. Picks up and releases dirt though opening in the
bottom of body. O/E.
Grader:Machine used to cut,
slope, level roads, ditches and building sites. O/E.
Highway Vehicles:All types
and sizes of nodwells and bombardiers and all 4 x 4, 6 x 6 and 8 x 8 trucks and
• Piledriver:Machine used to drive steel
or wooden piles into the ground to stabilize soil. O/E.
Mounter Drill:Drilling unit
where prime mover is an integral part of the drill. O/E.
Dozer:Dozer with rotating
blade used to backfill ditches. O/E.
cat:Dozer used to push
other equipment, usually scraper. O/E.
Cat:Dozer with ripper used
to rip hardpan or frozen soil. O/E.
Drills:Air track drills
which run off compressor used to drill holes for blasting. O/E.
Rollers:Packs gravel, sand,
asphalt or soil for hardening of road, etc. O/E.
Cat:Dozer with scraper
attached. Used to remove soil or material from areas motor scraper cannot
(Asphalt or Concert):Attachment
or part of paver that controls the width and depth of material being placed.
rubber-tired or steel rollers with or without attachments used to compact
materials on road, etc. O/E.
Loader:Same as front-ender
loader, but loads from side. O/E.
• Sideboom:Used for hoisting and
lowering pipe and materials into ditch. O/E.
Hoist:Hoist with single
drum for hoisting and lowering of materials. O/E.
loader on rubber tires. Can have several attachments. O/E, Lab.
• Skidder:Machine which may have blade
and/or grapple used to move (skid) logs. O/E.
Form Paver or Extruder:Machine
that lays down proper width and depth of asphalt or soil cement on roadway or
parking lot. O/E.
Cement & Lime Travel Mixers:Machine
used to mix and spread soil cement and lime to harden surfaces. O/E.
down asphalt behind paving machine. O/E.
compaction roller used to pack base material. O/E.
Roller (Finish):Packs down
and smoothes asphalt behind paving machine. O/E.
• Sweeper:All types and sizes of
self-propelled sweepers used to clean surface of foreign objects. O/E.
Cat:Dozer with winch used
to tow other equipment and vehicles. O/E.
are not self-propelled but must be towed by farm tractors or other equipment.
and Hammerhead Cranes:Stationary
cranes used to hoist, move and lower material. O/E.
• Trencher:Ditching machine used to dig
trenches for pipe and cable. O/E.
to forklift, but has a telescopic boom to reach distances. O/E.
following are the types of trucks found in this sector:
“A” Frame:Truck also known as winch or bed truck used
to hoist and transport equipment or material. (Being replaced by picker truck).
Distributor:Truck with tank, pump and spray bar for
application of bitumen or other fluids to road surfaces (black top,
maintenance, or asphalt distributors). O/E.
Dump/Belly Dump:Truck used to transport materials such as
sand, gravel and asphalt. Team., O/E.
Flat Deck/Stake:Truck without lifting device used to
transport small equipment and material. team. O/E.
Fuel:Trucks used to supply all equipment with gas
or diesel fuels. Team, O/E.
Hi-Boy:Truck used to move parts, equipment and
Hy-Ab:Flat-deck truck with knuckle-type lifting
device used to transport small equipment (pumps) and materials. O/E.
Hydro-Vac:Truck used to locate buried cables and oil,
gas and water lines. O/E.
Low Boy:Truck used to move equipment.
Picker Truck:Truck also known as boom, stinger, or pitman
has crane mounted on truck and is used to hoist and transport materials and
Pressure:truck also known as steam or wash truck used
to steam or wash equipment. O/E.
Pump Truck:Truck used to pump concrete. Team., O/E.
Service:Truck operated by service technicians in the
maintenance of all equipment, changing oil and lubricating. Team. O/E.
Trans-Mix: Truck used to transport concrete or other
material. Team. O/E.